What are the main aspects of crane lightweight?
(1) In order to meet actual needs, modern overhead cranes, jib cranes and gantry cranes are developing in the direction of large lifting capacity. Lightweight technology is to reduce the weight of the crane while ensuring the weight of the crane. The weight of Chinese cranes is usually 20%-50% heavier than foreign cranes. Based on this, we can see that there is a huge weight gap between Chinese cranes and European cranes. There is still a lot of room for improvement in the lightweight design of cranes. The crane lightweight is mainly reflected in five aspects:
(2) The design method of cranes in our country is usually the allowable stress method.In order to ensure the safety of the use of crane products, in the actual design the engineer usually adopts a large safety factor, which leads to the crane product deadweight increase size is too large, resulting in a waste of resources. Therefore, to avoid these situations, the limit state design method should be widely used to improve the calculation accuracy and make the calculation result closer to the state of the metal structure in actual work; modern design methods such as finite element method and fuzzy optimization design should be used to analyze and analyze in depth of dynamically simulate the mechanical and material properties of steel structures;
At present, all countries in the world are making full use of the scientific and technological achievements of other countries to digest, absorb and innovate, and further develop their own new technologies and new products.Reverse engineering design is a combination of a series of methods and application techniques aiming at digestion and absorption technology. Reverse engineering design through the physical or technical data of the existing product to analysis, research, anatomy and test, understand its parameters, performance, structure and function, master its key technology, working principle and process principle, in order to imitate, improve or develop a method to create new products.
(3) For the non-mainly stressed components in the crane, I-beam, channel steel, etc. can be used; welding structures can be used instead of castings, and welding technologies such as robot welding are used. Compared with manual welding,robot welding can ensure welding quality while ensuring It can reduce the use of solder: heat treatment and other processes are used to improve the surface strength of crane gears and other components to ensure that the crane has sufficient safety when the structure is optimized.
(4) China cranes materials are mostly Q235 and Q345, and materials such as polymer materials and high-strength steel are rarely used. In order to ensure the safety of the designed products, designers often increase the thickness of the steel plate and design additional reinforcement structures, thereby increasing the net weight of the lightweight crane. Related foreign crane companies use aluminum alloy materials to manufacture the main components of the crane. Compared with steel cranes, aluminum alloy cranes can reduce weight by more than 30%: Different materials are used for different types of components, and H-shaped steel is used instead of sheet steel as far as possible to save structural steel and improve the bending strength of the structure.
(4) The traditional type cranes can be divided into truss-type and box-shaped structures. Normally with section steel and steel plate as the main components, and the connection of different components is realized by welding or threaded connection. These structures emphasize stability and safety. However, there are few economic considerations and the use of section steel instead of welded beams: use a flexible trolley frame, change the "Tic Tac Toe" four-beam structure to an "I-shaped" beam structure; reduce the overall height of the trolley, and adopt the One" trolley operating mechanism, so that under the premise of ensuring structural stability and safety, part of the crane's structure has been improved to reduce the crane's own weight.
(5) The processing quality of the lifting mechanism components of domestic cranes is rough, the transmission system is inefficient, and the electrical control system performance is poor. The crane mechanism and electrical system are improved, and the compact lifting mechanism is used, high-speed motors are selected and small braking torque brakes are used; adopts frequency conversion speed regulation technology to improve the energy-saving effect of the crane; hoisting mechanism can adopt electric hoist; choose the appropriate magnification according to the different lifting height and lifting speed,
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