At present, information technology has been applied to all aspects of port production, from the internal production scheduling, terminal operation, business management, safety supervision, to the external EDI data exchange, logistics platform, port platform construction and so on. In the next few years, the port machinery and equipment market will expand rapidly. Now let's check the most common machinery and equipment at the port terminal.
Query-side Container Crane
Quayside container crane (quayside bridge for short) is the main equipment for loading and unloading containers between container ship and wharf front. Some wharves also use the large span and large extension distance of the quay bridge to directly carry out yard operation. The loading and unloading capacity and speed of Quay bridge directly determine the operating productivity of Quay, so quay bridge is the main equipment of container loading and unloading in port. Along with the vigorous development and technological progress of large-scale container ships, quayside bridge is constantly updated, with higher and higher technology content. It is developing towards the direction of large-scale, high-speed, automation and intelligence, as well as high reliability, long life, low energy consumption and environmental protection.
Ship-loader is a large-scale bulk material machine used in bulk material wharf loading. Generally, the ship loader is composed of boom belt conveyor, transition belt conveyor, telescopic chute, tail car, running device, gantry, tower, pitch device, turning device, etc., as shown in the figure. Large port bulk loading equipment plays an important role in energy, power, metallurgy, port and other industries, especially in the high-speed, stable, efficient and rolling development of some bulk bulk distribution centers. Loaders are usually continuous loaders. Therefore, it is necessary to have matched equipment to provide continuous material flow so that the Ship-loader can continuously ship. Such as the granary feeding of the grain wharf, the continuous feeding of the bucket wheel reclaimer in the stock yard of the coal wharf, etc.
Due to the different characteristics of the cargo loaded and unloaded in the dry bulk terminal, in addition, there are many types of ships. In addition, due to the impact of the bulk dust, the operation environment is relatively poor, and there are more stringent requirements for the detection equipment and technology. Therefore, the automation level of the bulk loading system is low at present, and it is basically operated by manual on-site. On the one hand, the poor working conditions (high temperature, high dust, high noise, etc.) of the bulk terminal will endanger the physical and mental health of the workers on site, on the other hand, the poor working conditions and long-term cargo loading will easily cause fatigue of workers and accidents during the loading process. In addition, due to manual loading, the operation process will be irregular and unscientific. In order to avoid collision, the chute will be suspended on the cabin, resulting in dust flying and cargo loss. Because the berth is a scarce resource of the terminal, the loading process of the bulk terminal becomes one of the bottlenecks restricting the bulk logistics, and the automatic loading system is urgently needed. Therefore, the biggest development trend of the Ship-loader in the future is that the automation degree will be higher and higher.
The ship unloader is a major loading and unloading equipment at the front of the wharf, which plays an important role in the working efficiency of the system. Therefore, the largest ship type at each port is based on the dock. In order to achieve the maximum productivity of the system, the efficient and reliable ship unloader is selected. At present, most of the ship unloaders of coal and ore terminals in China are grab ship unloaders.
Container Reach Stacker
The container reach stacker is a kind of container handling machinery used to complete container loading and unloading, stacking and horizontal transportation. It has the advantages of strong mobility, high efficiency, safety and reliability, simple operation, comfort and so on. It is an ideal loading and unloading machinery in the freight yard.
The container reach stacker is mainly divided into single boom and double boom structure. The single boom container reach stacker's boom is a two-stage retractable single boom, supported by two pitching hydraulic cylinders, with simple structure, convenient manufacturing and flexible operation. It is the most widely used form of container reach stacker. The double boom crane is used for the double boom container reach stacker. Each boom is supported by a pitching hydraulic cylinder. The two sets of boom can act separately or synchronously. The load distribution of the boom is reasonable and the working stability of the spreader is improved, but the structure is complex and the mobility is poor. At present, it is seldom used.
Empty Container Stacker
Empty container stacker is the key equipment of container transportation. It is widely used in the stacking and transfer of empty containers in ports, wharves, railway and highway transfer stations and yards. It is a supporting product of quayside bridge, yard bridge and front crane. It has the characteristics of high stacking layers, fast stacking and transportation speed, high operation efficiency, flexibility and site saving. In recent years, with the rapid development of the international logistics industry, the number of containers in each container yard and transfer station has increased significantly, resulting in the problem of narrow and tight site, and the expansion of the site is limited by the cost and land, so each freight yard and transfer station is considered to develop to a high level. Each container stacker manufacturer meets the user's requirements by improving the gantry device in its working mechanism. Now there are empty stackers with lifting height of 20 m, stacking of 9 layers and gantry height of 13 m in the market.
At present, the products with high reliability and superior performance, as well as the mechatronic forklift stacker equipped with advanced electronic technology, have a promising market prospect. Relying on the development of storage, we will develop new products, especially the products of forward-moving forklifts and stackers. The calculator technology is gradually popularized and applied in the electric forklift, and it is also used for information control. Driverless forklift will be suitable for the needs of toxic or special environment, with a large development space.
Container spreader is a large-scale special machine for container loading and unloading. It is suitable for cargo storage, water port and wharf. Because it is a special equipment, it has the characteristics of high reliability, stable operation and high operation efficiency. It is an important auxiliary tool for lifting equipment.
A floating platform with a crane, which can be moved to any place in the port, or berthed, or moved to the anchorage for transshipment. Floating crane can usually lift heavy goods. Mainly used for loading and unloading of large goods. The ship is equipped with lifting equipment, and the boom is fixed and rotary. Lifting capacity generally ranges from hundreds to thousands of tons. It can also be used as a port engineering ship.
Floating cranes are generally divided into two categories: one is that the boom can rotate 360 degrees; the other is that the boom is fixed in one direction of the ship, and the whole ship is turned by tugboat towing, or anchored in each direction by the ship, and the heavy object rotates by pulling the chain in different directions. The structure and mechanical structure of the former is very complex, and the lifting capacity is relatively small. Crane ship is also called floating crane ship. It is used for lifting and hoisting on water. It is generally not self-propelled, but also self-propelled. The crane is installed on the crane ship. The crane with frequent operation is usually self-propelled, and its crane can rotate. When lifting extra large parts, two crane boats can be used for combined operation.
Rubber Tyred Container Gantry Crane
Rubber tyred container gantry crane (RTG crane) is a special machine for large specialized container yard, loading and unloading standard containers. It is not only suitable for the storage yard of container terminal, but also suitable for the special storage yard of container.
The RTG crane is powered by a diesel engine AC generator set, which adopts digital frequency control, and can move in two directions in the container yard. Equipped with a retractable sling capable of lifting 20 foot, 40 foot containers. Most of the spreaders of RTG crane are fixed guide plates. In order to reduce the swing of the spreader, a mechanical anti sway device is installed. In order to facilitate the case, a small angle rotation device of the spreader is installed. In order to be able to change the site operation, a right angle steering mechanism of 00-900 is provided. In general, the span of RTG crane has been standardized to 23.47m (six lines plus walkway), and RTG crane with non-standard span can also be supplied. The lifting height can ensure to lift a 40 foot long 9'6 "container over four (or five to six) layers of stacking.
The RTG crane is supported on large tubeless tires with 4, 8 or 16 wheels. The number of wheels is designed according to the requirements of the site wheel pressure. The crane traveling mechanism can be driven by four or two wheels. In order to prevent the collision between RTG cranes and between RTG cranes and containers, a manual deviation correction system and a four corner anti-collision device are provided.
The trolley running machine can be driven by rack type or double axle or single axle, and the running is stable. A cab is arranged under the trolley frame, in which the driver operates the whole crane.
RTG crane adopts AC or DC speed regulation system, which has good speed regulation and constant power control, and can automatically adjust the lifting speed according to the weight of the box.
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